Aegina existed along a trade route - hence it's propserity - so we could assume that some travellers would stop off at the island, but I have seen little evidence of this apart from the location. Pausanias (2, 30, 3-5) mentions the myth of Aphaia and identifies her with the Cretan divinity Britomartis-Diktynna, an opinion shared by modern scholars. The central, palmette-shaped acroterion, which was framed by two korai, and the four sphinxes on the corners of the roof were also of marble. The pediments depicted two mythical combats before Troy in the presence of Athena; heroes from Aegina participated in both. All the activities at the sanctuary were apparently dictated by their calender. It was, according to Pausanias, Artemis who made Aphaia a goddess when she was running from King Minos who had fallen in love with her. The pedimental sculptures of the temple - which argueably tells us the most about the Sanctuary and Aegina - are now in Munich. A 3 stepped sloping ramp provided access at the east end. As I have said before, the site could be a matter of local pride and identity. Daedalic terracotta reliefs have also been found, most showing some variation of a woman holding her breasts, which some believe points to Aphaia being a "kourotrophic" deity. The temple, erected at approximately 500-490 BC, replaced an earlier one, also of tufa, which stood on the same site and with the same orientation. It’s hard to rely 100% on ads, and your contributions will help us continue providing the best free cultural, Tourism and educational materials to learners everywhere. Would you like to support the mission of Greece High Definition? Watson, J. However, this is not backed up an awful lot. Pre-historic votives have also been found, such as figures depicting breeding women which could easily be linked to this. The importance and infrastructures of the Aphaia sanctuary declined rapidly following the Athenian domination of Aegina from the middle of the fifth century BC. Remains of the altar, the temple (and it's earlier iterations), and the lodgings for priests have all been found, as well as buildings for votive offerings. Pausanias tells us the story of a man who sacrificed to Zeus on Aegina (there was a less magnificent sanctuary of Zeus on a mountain on the island) in order to end a drought. Marble, length 5’6″ (1.60 meters). This story is well known in Crete, where she is called Diktynna and also worshipped by the locals. Little scholarship exists outside of the Temple. (2010), 'Rethinking the Sanctuary of Aphaia' in Aegina: Contexts for Choral Lyric Poetry: Myth, History, and Identity in the Fifth Century BC, eds. The temple had a pronaos and an opisthodomos, both distyle in antis and a cella with 2-story colonnade and gallery. Pausanias (2, 30, 3-5) mentions the myth of Aphaia … You can update your cookie preferences at any time. c. 500-490 BCE. I believe it was a symbol of local poleis pride but also a site used in, and affected by, inter-poleis conflict and rivalry. It is the most important monument in the sanctuary of Aphaia, which appears to have been founded on a site used for worship since the Mycenaean period. This sculpture is very expressive in nature. Please let us know if you agree to functional, advertising and performance cookies. The architect C. R. Cocherell and his friend baron von Hallerstein explored the site in 1811 and removed the pedimental sculptures to Italy. Dinsmoor 1975, 105-107; PECS, 19-21; Ohly 1978, 10, See Also: Aegina, Altar of AphaiaAegina East Pediment 2Aegina West Pediment 2, West end of temple from W, Aegina, Temple of Aphaia, Front of temple from NE, Aegina, Temple of Aphaia, Detail of N crepidoma blocks, from S, Aegina, Sanctuary, Temple of Aphaia, Northeast corner of temple from NW, Aegina, Sanctuary, Temple of Aphaia. The site has been excavated by the Germans since the 19th century. The opisthodomos was originally separated from the cella by a solid wall; later a door was cut through the wall, connecting the two rooms. The west pediment reflects the aesthetics of the sixth century BC, while the east pediment, which is more animated and less stylized, dates to the early fifth century BC. from the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia on Aegina (c. 490-480 BCE). A column crowned by a Sphynx was placed near th entrance of the sanctuary. The latter point can only be strengthened by the local heroes also seen on the pediment sculpture.The west pediment shows Athena overseeing conflict in the Trojan war, in which the Aeginetians fought alongside the Greeks. The surviving temple from about 500 BC was built over the remains of an earlier temple, which was destroyed by fire. There is also Athena who was depicted on the East and West pediments of the later temple, where she is shown amongst conflict between Aeginetians and Trojans (each side depicts a different conflict which I will address in detail). Od. Some repairs were made in the fourth century, but the third century was a period of decadence and by the end of the second century BC the area was abandoned. The later set (East Pediment 2 and West Pediment 2) was carved shortly afterwards, the east pediment slightly later than the west. From the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. Dedications- Dedications were presumably around the outside of the temple and in various places around the Temple. Coronavirus (Covid-19): Latest updates and information. A ladder led to the upper gallery, which was perhaps used to store votives. The first and foremost figure is the goddess Aphaia, the daughter of Zeus and Karme and supposedly good friends with Artemis, as she enjoys hunting along with her. What better way to really "stick it" to the Athenians than to not only appropriate their patron goddess, but to then stick her amongst a set of purely Aeginetian heroes fighting the Trojans not once, but twice. This sculpture was composed in 510 BCE. I believe this site is hugely significent, especially as a local sanctuary. Many votives depicting ships and a woman holding a flower-adorned ship have also been found, which could link Aphaia to the sea (she did escape from Minos via the sea). The well-preserved remains of this impressive temple stand proudly on a pine-covered hill with far-reaching views over the Saronic Gulf. 570 BC was probably built on the site; fragments of this structure were built into the terrace wall. The temple of Aphaia stands on a pine-clad hill in northeast Aegina. The sanctuary itself was on a hilltop and apparently visible from passing ships. An early temple of ca. An early set (East Pediment 1 and West Pediment 1), carved in the early fifth century, was discarded for uncertain reasons (possibly political) and set up in the sanctuary flanking the altar. In 1928 the sculptures were taken to Munich, where they remain. Another theory for this inclusion also exists, and it takes into account the supposed tension between Aegina and Athens in the 6th century onwards. The east pediment was built later than the west, and came after another set of pediments that were rejected, presumably for political reasons. This tension climaxed in the 5th century, around 431BC, when the Athenians invaded and colonised Aegina, forcing it's native inhabitants away. The columns, cella walls and entablature were of local porous limestone, which was plastered and painted over.
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